This page is intended as a reference for hardware that can be used for recording in Linux. There are other lists, e.g. the Alsa one, but some are out of date and they are not generally aimed at recording. Each device (or family of devices) should have a page detailing the capabilities, what works on Linux and what additional software is required (if any).
This relies on the ffado project. They list supported devices. Users should post comments there if the information is incorrect
Most USB 1.1 devices are 'class compliant', i.e. they conform to a standard that is supported in Linux, but this may not support all the features of the device. Generally 48kHz/16 bit stereo I/O will work (24 bit support?). Some devices have dedicated ALSA support for advanced features.
Many USB 2.0 devices require proprietary drivers and so will not work on Linux. Info required on class compliant devices, if any.
Several PCI interfaces are well supported. Less information about PCIe cards. Newer motherboards using Intel Series 7 chipset (H77, Z75, and Z77) emulate PCI via a 'bridge'. This may cause latency issues.